TRADITIONAL ELEMENTS MAINTAINED IN HOUSING TYPES DEVELOPED AND CHANGE OCCURRING IN HISTORICAL CITY TEXTURE, SHEKI (AZERBAIJAN) DURING TSARIST RUSSIA

Abstract

Author(s): Anar AZ?ZSOY

Towards the middle of the XIX century, putting an end to the Azerbaijan Khanates, taking over the power, Tsarist Empire commenced a Russian impression novel reconstruction activity in significant city centres of the country. Monumental houses whose many serial large windows and balconies open outside with multi-storey, high ceiling different from indoor established houses built taking Turkic-Islamic traditions into consideration were started to be built during this period not only inside the citadel established during Khanates but also in the texture of streets and roads newly determined outside of the walls of citadel of Sheki, one of the cities in North-east. During this period, when the visage of the city gained a new appearance, the city texture, particularly with public buildings, was decorated with rich examples integrated with various official residences and numerous civil buildings in the possession of ordinary people on the streets and roads. In the spots that determined the centre, the above-mentioned buildings, sometimes lined mutually, with their common properties, offer the course of the development to the line extending Southern Caucasia even to Anatolia to Kars and its vicinity as does the entire country the Tsarist Empire had ruled. In house design of before mentioned period when Baltic influenced Russian architecture understanding was dominant, traditional Turkish house plan and construction elements were also given place. Especially, mirrored fireplaces constructed indoors are evident properties which should be recorded in that architecture period, with their closeness to Tabriz civil buildings remaining from Azerbaijan Khanates in terms of stained glass front structures of city houses which were able to preserve their authentic examples in the country. During this period when production spread as the primary silk centre, the high roofs of the houses where silk cocoons were grown, activating as silk production workshops, contain details about social pattern as differences reverberating to housing architecture. Therefore, we can say that with the effect of change, in the Sheki city texture during Tsarist period when a housing fact in the way the society newly adopted, an authentic house structure providing eclectical properties emerged. Within this context, our study has been constructed on the axis of the spatial distribution in the houses of that period of places of houses. Mentioning about the general characteristics of house architecture, technical/theoretical information such as planning schemes of houses, type development and structural properties was generally evaluated within the context of the study while qualities of physical formation that culture reflected to the place were determined. Also, without looking at terminological differences of residence and house concepts, both are given place in the text since they both have close meaning in the sentence; as a result, the problem of dating containing a size as controversial as to be the subject of a different study was not addressed

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