Received: Feb 01, 2022, Manuscript No. jisr-22-52226; Editor assigned: Feb 03, 2022, Pre QC No. jisr-22-52226(PQ); Reviewed: Feb 17, 2022, QC No. jisr-22-52226; Revised: Feb 21, 2022, Manuscript No. jisr-22-52226(R); Published: Feb 28, 2022, DOI: 10.17719/jisr.2022.52226
This research is motivated by the existence of problems related to the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action that has not been effective, which is marked by the high number of road accidents in Ciamis Regency. To observe this, it is important to conduct a study on increasing prevention and prevention efforts at an early stage involving programs, sectors, local governments and the community.
The research was conducted using qualitative research methods with a case study approach. Qualitative data was collected through observation, interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Data analysis was carried out by means of descriptive analysis through data reduction, data display, verification, drawing conclusions and using TOWS analysis.
The results showed that:
1). The implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency when examined in the mentality approach aspect regarding the attitudes and responsibilities of implementing policies and aspects of the system approach with regard to regulations, cultural values and organizational structures and functions has been maximized, however, in the networking approach aspect related to strategic partnerships, and synergies built between stakeholders to be further optimized.
2). The ineffectiveness of the policy implementation strategy for the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency is due to the following factors:
a). The implementation of communication and coordination with cross-stakeholders has not been implemented effectively.
b). Not optimal level of socialization,
c). The preparation of SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) and work structure has not been implemented effectively.
d). Limited support for human resources (human resources).
e). The participation of private sector stakeholders is still low and the level of community participation is minimal.
3). An effective strategy in implementing the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency is through the Diversification Strategy, which means that it is necessary to strengthen individual aspects, organizational aspects, and system aspects through capacity building (capacity building) of regional institutions which ultimately requires concrete efforts to establish an organizational forum, namely the formation of the Ciamis Regency Integrated Accident Management Team (TTPK) to provide a more real role in active coordination with primary stakeholders (Health Department, Land and Spatial Planning Public Works Agency (DPUPRP), Education Office, Communication and Information Office (Kominfo), Planning Agency Region (Bappeda) and the Department of Finance); secondary stakeholders (community, professional organizations, academia and the private sector); and key stakeholders (police).
Strategy, Policy implementation, Regional institutional capacity building, Diversification strategy, Collaborative governance.
1. RESEARCH BACKGROUND
The implementation of road traffic and transportation in accordance with the development of science and technology, regional autonomy and accountability for state administration is a demand for the development of the national and international strategic environment. Road traffic and transportation have a strategic role in supporting economic development, regional development and national integration as part of efforts to promote public welfare. Therefore, its potential and role must be developed to realize security, safety, order and smooth traffic and road transportation. Insecurity and disorder can lead to accidents. Accidents can happen at any time and anywhere. However, accidents are more common in human traffic conditions because traffic occurs almost every second of human life and occurs everywhere. Traffic accidents are a scary thing for road users, if you are not careful; there are dangers that are ready to threaten your life at any time. Motorcycle riders and pillion riders are required to wear helmets, and car drivers are required to wear seat belts. However, these various protections also have to be supported by high vigilance and knowledge of the factors that are generally behind the traffic accident itself.
Of course, with this, real efforts are needed from various parties to find real solutions to minimize the accident rate, not only relying on certain parties who are responsible, in this case the police and the Ciamis Regency Transportation Service. Based on the observations of researchers in the field, it shows that the high number of accidents in Ciamis Regency is identified as follows:
1. The level of compliance of motorcycle riders is very weak and the lack of knowledge of motorcycle users about the regulations or policies made by the government in regulating the rules that must be obeyed by motorcycle riders on the highway. This may be due to the low level of education possessed by motorcyclists.
2. Do not use driving safety standards such as wearing SNI helmets, helmets are not clicked when traveling, do not pay attention to traffic signs, do not turn on turn signal lights during the day, motorized vehicles often pass in the left lane and it is not uncommon to find many car users not wearing seat belts and the most common is speeding on the road.
3. Conditions of vehicles that are not roadworthy such as the condition of adequate vehicle tires, brakes not functioning as they should, this is related to the fact that there are still many vehicles that have not been tested for KIR.
4. Availability of infrastructure is still found road damage in many roads, this damage is of various kinds, generally there is road damage in the form of cracks (cracking), corrugation (corrugation), as well as damage in the form of grooves / basins in the direction of extending the road around vehicle wheel tracks (rutting). In the form of puddles of asphalt on the surface of the road (bleeding) and in the form of potholes and there are still many roads without road markings and signs.
5. The availability of road equipment in the form of signs, markings, public road lighting and others has not been maximized. Procurement and installation must be continuous considering that the signs that have been installed are already damaged, even in the case of public street lighting there are some spare parts missing so that the PJU is not optimal.
Basically there is a road transportation safety program in Indonesia which is contained in Law No. 22 of 2009 which contains important references in the implementation of road transportation safety programs, the implementation of road transportation safety programs is carried out by the Government, Regional Governments, Legal Entities and the Community. In relation to the implementation of the road safety action policy in Ciamis Regency, the road transportation safety program is carried out by the central government as the executor and the local government as an assistant in the implementation of the road transportation safety program. Overall, the road transportation safety program covers the road sector and the field of traffic and road transportation facilities and infrastructure.
From the results of the researchers' initial observations, the ineffective implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency is due to the following:
a. The support of Human Resources (human resources) in the technical implementation of work operations is not yet maximal; this is indicated by the lack of maximum technical work pattern guidelines applied by the Ciamis Regency Transportation Service.
b. The unclear work structure and function set by the policy implementer, this is the Ciamis Regency Transportation Service in implementing the pattern of relations and work norms, which tend to stagnate so that it has an impact on the ineffectiveness of implementing decades of road safety actions.
c. The implementation of coordination among policy implementers is not optimal, especially with regard to the implementation of coordination between SKPD which has not been carried out intensively, even though with good communication and coordination, the programs listed in the policy of the decade of road safety action can be realized according to their targets.
d. The low role of stakeholders in supporting the policy of the decade of road safety action, this can be seen from the role of SKPD and minimal community participation in the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action.
e. The implementation of integrated socialization carried out by the Department of Transportation or related parties is not yet optimal. This is indicated by the large number of people who are not aware of this policy widely in Ciamis Regency.
f. Ineffectiveness in implementing the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for public services (public services standard), so that the work function of the apparatus becomes less than optimal and has an impact on the policies of the decade of road safety actions.
g. The availability of performance support facilities, especially those related to the inadequate use of information and communication technology is indicated by the lack of adequate work infrastructure.
Responding to various problems in the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency, it is necessary to have an active role, especially from the Regional Government and all stakeholders (public and private) to be maximized. Thus the policy of the decade of road safety action developed must be based on the level of awareness by all parties, both from all elements of the SKPD, the community and the private sector. Therefore, efforts are needed with a new strategy to realize the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency.
To support the policy implementation process, according to Kadji (2016: 90) there are 3 factors that influence policy implementation as follows:
1. Mentality-App roach; In the implementation aspect of a policy, what needs to be considered is the extent to which the policy product can touch and change the behavior of the apparatus (policy makers and implementers), business practitioners, and also the community as the subject and object of the policy itself.
2. Systems-Approach; The systems approach is seen as one of the logical and analytical approaches to various fields, including the field of public policy implementation. A system is basically a unit consisting of a number of components that are interconnected and interact to achieve a goal. In this regard, it can be emphasized that every policy that will be implemented, must not escape the direct and indirect influence of a system that covers the policy itself.
3. Networking-Approach; In the current era of development, it is unreasonable to implement a policy for the public interest, still relying on or prioritizing sectoral spirit, group spirit, and individualistic spirit. What is appropriate is that whatever is built for the public interest, it should put forward the spirit of synergy and network of cooperation among public policy stakeholders.
On the other hand, given that policy implementation can be influenced by several factors, in different contexts (regional area, policy focus, and time) a policy that is well implemented does not provide a guarantee that the substantial objectives of the policy will be achieved. Based on these concepts and paradigms, researchers are interested in studying more deeply how the implementation of the policy implementation strategy for the Decade of Action for Road Safety can be realized optimally and effectively in Ciamis Regency, through studies and analysis based on critical factors by referring to the parameters and how the framework built in theory above. The various problems above are the background of the research on: "The Strategy for Implementing the Decade of Action for Road Safety Policy in Ciamis Regency".
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The flow of thought in the literature review in this study is described as follows:
Figure 1. Library Study Thought.
3. RESEARCH METHODS
The research approach used in this study is a qualitative approach (qualitative research). This qualitative research is specifically more directed at the use of the case study method. As the opinion of Lincoln and Guba (2010:34) which states that a qualitative approach can also be called a case study or qualitative, namely "in-depth and detailed research on everything related to the research subject". Basically research with the type of case study aims to find out about something in depth (Rahardjo, 2012).
By using a case study approach, a research process can be carried out that uncovers research problems that adapt to real conditions or conditions and reveals facts according to the ongoing social situation, this is related to the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action, uncovering inhibiting factors and strategies that can applied with theoretical support which is then built into a framework of thought. This study uses data collection methods by conducting: literature study, in-depth interviews, field observations and FGD (triangulation) and TOWS data analysis.
4. RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To find out how much influence internal and external factors have on the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency, the researchers used TOWS research. Based on the results of giving weights and ratings through TOWS IFAS and EFAS analysis, the final total value of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats can be obtained as follows:
• Opportunities – Threats = 1.781 – 1.182 = 0.599
• Strengths – Weaknesses = 1.378 – 1.616 = -0.238
a) SWOT Analysis
The results obtained above are then used as a reference for the formation of the TOWS analysis to see the policy position of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency as follows:
Figure 2. TOWS Analysis Results Implementation of the Road Safety Decade of Action Policy in Ciamis District
Based on the picture above, it can be seen that the policy position of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency is in quadrant II with a total internal and external weight score of 2,994 and 2,963, respectively. This situation means that the condition of the Regional Government of Ciamis Regency to implement the policy of the decade of road safety action is in a strong position but faces big challenges. The expected strategy recommendation is a Diversification Strategy, meaning that the organization is in a stable condition but faces a number of severe challenges so that it is estimated that the wheels of the organization will have difficulty continuing to spin if it only relies on the previous strategy. Therefore, organizations are advised to immediately increase their variety of tactical strategies.
The institutional strengthening step which will be built through a joint program between the Transportation Service and all stakeholders in Ciamis Regency is expected to have a positive impact on all involved, namely the main (Primary) stakeholders such as the Health Office, the Public Works and Spatial Planning Agency (DPUPRP)., the Education Office, the Communication and Information Office (Kominfo), the Regional Planning Agency (Bappeda) and the Finance Service then supporting (secondary) stakeholders such as the community (professional organizations), academia and the private sector, then the key stakeholders, namely the police. In the end, the steps to strengthen the capacity of regional institutions that have been carried out have succeeded in showing the relationship in managing joint activities between all parties with an interest in the success of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency to be more focused.
Given that in realizing the policy implementation of the decade of road safety action is a challenge, it is necessary to establish a representative institution as a forum for uniting the essence of regional institutional capacity through the Establishment of the Ciamis Regency Integrated Accident Management Team (TTPK). Furthermore, this team will later in its duties and functions are oriented to three things as follows:
1. Synergy and synchronization of program activities.
2. Unification of vision and perception, as well as
3. Facilitating sectoral issues.
In connection with the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency, it cannot be separated from the involvement of several main stakeholders (Primary), supporting stakeholders (Secondary) and Key stakeholders with all their limitations. That the formation of the Integrated Accident Management Team (TTPK) is based on ensuring the integration between stakeholders. Thus, the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency needs to be placed in the perspective of the right strategy. One of the right strategies to use is Collaborative governance.
The Integrated Accident Management Team (TTPK) can collaborate with primary, secondary and key stakeholders. With more intensive interactions, the Integrated Accident Management Team (TTPK) will be able to make the decades of road safety action policies more effective in Ciamis Regency. Based on the image model with the strategic alliance perspective above, the general model recommendations proposed are as follows:
The picture above shows the strategic recommendations in the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency in the perspective of collaborative governance strategies in Ciamis Regency. Based on this recommendation model, according to the researcher's view, several adjustments are needed, including:
Figure 3. Recommendation Strategy Implementation of Decade of Action Policy Road Safety in Ciamis District.
1. To realize the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency, it is necessary to make changes regarding management that is adaptive in nature to a pattern of collaborative governance strategies.
2. Giving clear roles to primary, secondary and key stakeholders to collaborate with the local government (Ciamis Regency Transportation Department) in order to create the same synergy in realizing the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency.
3. Can provide more clarity of duties and functions to the Integrated Accident Management Team (TTPK) to collaborate in order to maximize its goal of reducing the accident rate in the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency.
Related to the system approach to implementing the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency to be more optimal, it is time to be supported by adequate resources, especially in terms of facilities and infrastructure. From the research results, it is rather difficult to achieve the level of success of policy implementers. The results of the study show that the officers assigned to regulate traffic orderly areas have not fully understood their duties and functions as those who provide peace and order for road users, while seconded officers have dual duties and are not trained. Meanwhile, the apparatus that was seconded to succeed the policy of the decade of road safety action was still inadequate in quantity and quality, including the availability of service facilities, facilities and infrastructure. it is proper that resources must be addressed, both in terms of infrastructure and in terms of the quality of human resources, so that from inadequate infrastructure and good human resources, it will certainly support the success of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency. In addition, the implementation of the networking approach carried out by the Department of Transportation of Ciamis Regency, as well as stakeholders related to the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action, can be identified with a clear division of tasks and functions which is also strengthened by the existence of policies that have set service standards by the resort police. Ciamis Regency, so that the implementation of the bureaucratic structure can provide an understanding of the duties of the implementers who occupy each position related to the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency, including service officers who are permanent, sufficiently understand their duties in established policy procedures. And from the results of the research can be expressed, has been going well.
Policies that have been issued by the government should be related parties, especially primary, secondary and key stakeholders are required to be able to understand, appreciate and implement them. In other words, the involvement of all stakeholders is very much needed for the creation of the stated policy objectives. Based on this, it can be stated that the primary, secondary and key stakeholders of community participation in the implementation of government policies will be seen from the behavior of supporting and implementing the policies planned by the government regarding the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency.
Quality human resources are needed in an effort to achieve the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency. This means that it is important for all parties involved to have an understanding and ability to handle road safety action policies in the future, moreover that the participation of all stakeholders can occur actively or passively. Active participation is carried out directly, both individually and collectively, which is consciously carried out to help government programs with their own initiative and creativity, each party involves themselves through a willingness to foster a sense of belonging. While the passive role is indicated by the emergence of stakeholder awareness not to carry out activities that can affect the mindset of the object of thought in the policy of transportation affairs. Efforts to increase passive participation can be done through counseling, outreach and dialogue by disseminating information about road safety in the future. All of the above can be effectively accumulated if the development of regional institutional capacity, especially the Ciamis Regency Transportation Service as the leading sector, runs optimally.
The involvement of primary, secondary and key stakeholders in the implementation of the Collaborative governance strategy in the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency which is expected to provide maximum action. The involvement of all these stakeholders is not only involved in the planning process or the formulation of a policy, but is more involved at the implementation stage to be able to provide support in efforts to reduce the accident rate in Ciamis Regency. The relationship between the Ciamis District Transportation Service and all primary, secondary and key stakeholders is generally said to be not good enough because it turns out that the Ciamis District Transportation Service has not been able to embrace all stakeholders to be able to actively participate in efforts to realize a more effective road safety policy decade in Ciamis District. The implementation of Collaborative governance is expected to be an effective strategy to further maximize all stakeholders, both primary, secondary and key stakeholders to equalize perceptions or views regarding the importance of the policy of the decade of road safety action for the realization of synergistic, safe and sustainable transportation governance and which in the end can reduce accident rate in Ciamis Regency.
The conclusions of this study are as follows:
a. The implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency from the results of the analysis of researchers based on interviews and observations it was found that the mentality approach aspects concerning the attitudes, behavior and responsibilities of policy implementers had been well implemented, in the system approach aspects related to regulations, cultural values and structures and Organizational functions have been maximized, however in the aspect of the networking approach related to the strategic partnership, and the synergy built between primary, secondary and key stakeholders to be further optimized so that road action safety policies in Ciamis Regency can be more effective.
b. The factors that cause the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency has not been effective, namely: a). The implementation of communication and coordination with cross- stakeholders carried out by the Department of Transportation has not been implemented effectively, b). The level of socialization carried out by the Department of Transportation is not yet optimal, c). The preparation of SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) and work structure has not been implemented effectively. d). Limited support for human resources (human resources) in supporting the policy of the decade of road safety action. e). The participation of private sector stakeholders is still low and the level of community participation in supporting the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency is still low.
c. An effective strategy in implementing the policy of the decade of road safety action in Ciamis Regency from the results of the SWOT analysis is in quadrant II is Strategy Diversification, which means the organization is in a stable condition but faces a number of severe challenges so it is estimated that the wheels of the organization will have difficulty continuing to spin if it only relies on strategy. previously. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen individual and organizational aspects and system aspects through the capacity building of regional institutions. In the end, concrete efforts are needed in the formation of an organizational forum, namely the formation of the Ciamis Regency Integrated Accident Management Team (TTPK) which is intended in the future to be able to provide a real role in carrying out active coordination with primary, secondary and key stakeholders in realizing the implementation of the policy of the decade of road safety action through strategy Collaborative Governance.