Short Communication - (2023) Volume 16, Issue 100

Evaluating the Efficacy of Environmental Education in Promoting Conservation: A Systematic Review
Estelle Gaillard*
Department of Educator Preparation and Leadership, College of Education, University of Missouri – St. Louis, USA
*Correspondence: Estelle Gaillard, Department of Educator Preparation and Leadership, College of Education, University of Missouri – St. Louis, USA, Email:

Received: May 02, 2023, Manuscript No. jisr-23-100803; Editor assigned: May 05, 2023, Pre QC No. jisr-23-100803 (PQ); Reviewed: May 19, 2023, QC No. jisr-23-100803; Revised: May 24, 2023, Manuscript No. jisr-23-100803 (R); Published: May 31, 2023, DOI: 10.17719/jisr.2023.100803


Data manifest all four dimensions of the Global Teaching Model situated relevant practice, integrated global learning, critical and cultural consciousness raising, and intercultural collaboration for transformative action to differing degrees. This study provides evidence for the Global Teaching Model as a prospective framework and emphasizes the critical dimension when internationalizing teacher education. To better understand the research-implementation spaces where those environmental education outcomes occur, are measured, and are reported, we undertook a systematic review of research on environmental education's contributions to conservation and environmental quality outcomes. Given the variation in research designs and data, we used a mixed-methods approach to the review; analysis of the resulting studies documented strongly positive environmental education outcomes overall and highlighted productive research-implementation spaces.


Globally competent teaching, Global, competence, Teacher education, Global education, Integrating global learning, Teacher practices.


Environmental education plays a critical role in promoting conservation efforts worldwide. As concerns about climate change, habitat destruction, and species extinction continue to grow, it becomes increasingly important to assess the effectiveness of environmental education programs in achieving conservation goals. This article presents a systematic review that evaluates the efficacy of environmental education in promoting conservation, aiming to provide insights into the impact of such initiatives. Identifying and specifying the ways in which environmental education leads not only to conservation actions and behaviors, but especially to tangible environmental improvements, necessitates many steps. Environmental education addresses wicked problems, such as climate change and biodiversity loss, which are mired in the complexities inherent in socioecological systems. Understanding and contextualizing the success of an environmental education program often involves measuring short- and intermediary-term outcomes environmental concern, self-efficacy, critical thinking, followed by tracking outcomes that require more time to develop and manifest. Pinpointing the influence of environmental education programs can be further complicated by the fact that such programs are frequently nested within larger conservation or education. Quality environmental education involves many partners and stakeholders who collaborate in a research-implementation space where science, decision making, and local culture and environment intersect environmental education evaluation and assessment often struggle in these productive, yet complex, spaces.

The systematic review revealed a substantial body of evidence supporting the efficacy of environmental education in promoting conservation. A wide range of studies demonstrated positive outcomes across diverse conservation domains, including biodiversity preservation, waste reduction, sustainable resource management, and climate change mitigation. These findings indicate that environmental education programs can effectively raise awareness, knowledge, and pro-environmental behaviors among participants, ultimately leading to tangible conservation actions.


The findings highlight the multifaceted benefits of environmental education in promoting conservation efforts. Firstly, environmental education helps individuals develop a deeper understanding of the interconnectedness between human activities and environmental systems. This knowledge fosters a sense of responsibility and empowers individuals to make informed decisions that contribute to conservation outcomes. Secondly, environmental education programs often incorporate hands-on experiences and immersive learning, which have been shown to be particularly effective in engaging participants and fostering long-term behavioral changes. Lastly, environmental education serves as a catalyst for building partnerships and networks, enabling communities and organizations to collaborate in conservation initiatives and amplify their impact.

Despite the overall positive outcomes, the systematic review also identified some challenges and limitations. Variations in program design, duration, and evaluation methods made it difficult to compare and generalize findings across studies. Additionally, long-term evaluation of the sustained impact of environmental education programs remains relatively scarce, indicating the need for further research in this area.


This systematic review provides compelling evidence supporting the efficacy of environmental education in promoting conservation. It underscores the importance of incorporating environmental education into conservation strategies and policies to address the pressing environmental challenges we face. By equipping individuals with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take action, environmental education has the potential to inspire a generation of environmentally conscious citizens who actively contribute to the preservation and sustainable use of natural resources. Further research and evaluation are needed to refine program design, assess long-term impacts, and explore innovative approaches to maximize the effectiveness of environmental education in conservation efforts. The diversity of outcome data—knowledge, attitudes, capacity, opportunities for action, behavior, and ecological—suggests abundant options for researchers wishing to measure and report impacts. As evidenced in the discussed themes, our recommendations emphasize practical, straightforward strategies, such as incorporating an action-project component into a discussion-based program; connecting with researchers to set parameters for ecological monitoring and ensure the data collected are useful in ongoing conservation research; basing programs in local natural areas; and designing conservation initiatives based on community needs. Reviewed studies highlight hands-on approaches, such as citizen science, and collaborative processes, such as participatory action research, which demonstrate ways in which the thematic findings apply to achieve educational and conservation outcomes.


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