Mini Review Article - (2022) Volume 15, Issue 95

Anthropology: Chinese Anthropology and Ethnology
Gosselin Barker*
Admas University, Department of Social Sciences, Ethiopia
*Correspondence: Gosselin Barker, Admas University, Department of Social Sciences, Ethiopia, Email:

Received: Dec 01, 2022, Manuscript No. jisr-22-84740; Editor assigned: Dec 02, 2022, Pre QC No. jisr-22- 84740 (PQ); Reviewed: Dec 15, 2022, QC No. jisr-22-84740; Revised: Dec 22, 2022, Manuscript No. jisr-22-84740 (R); Published: Dec 29, 2022, DOI: 10.17719/jisr.2022.84740


Since the turn of the 21st century, the rise of neo-nationalism has been a significant political development. Neo-nationalism is one type of nationalism, not all of them. The student-to-teacher ratio was close to the national average in 2020, and Tibet's education fee per student led China's 31 provincial regions. The running conditions in Tibet's elementary and middle schools still need to be improved. This can be seen in the low proportion of full-time teachers in primary and middle schools, the absence of teachers in middle schools with senior professional titles, and the location of auxiliary teaching facilities like laboratories, computer rooms, and gymnasiums, among other things. in middle schools, particularly high schools, and a lack of teaching resources in middle schools, such as books, computers, and multimedia classrooms. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought attention to the need to develop effective treatments not only for the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, but also for other pathogenic Corona Viruses (CoV) that may or may not emerge in the future. As a result, researchers are concentrating on specific or broad-spectrum antiviral agent-resistant steps in the CoV replication cycle. Pan-CoV therapeutics can benefit from elucidating the fusion domain and its mechanism, which are conserved across the CoV family. We summarize the findings of research on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and recent peer-reviewed studies of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the role of the CoV spike protein in mediating fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. We also suggest that the fusion mechanism be investigated as a potential target for antivirals. In addition, we provide a supplementary file with a phylogenetic tree and background information on the biology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of all coronaviruses that infect humans.

The three stages of development and transformation of Chinese anthropological and ethnological theories are as follows: the introduction of foreign theories and the reconstruction of Chinese anthropology and ethnology from 1978 to 1990, the orientation of Chinese issues from 1990 to 2000, and the establishment of the Chinese School and its growing international influence since 2000.


COVID-19, Fusion Peptide; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV-2, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; Spike Protein, Laboratories, Computer Rooms, Multimedia Classrooms


Since the turn of the century, a lot has changed in the world. Ethnic and religious issues, which previously occupied a relatively minor or subordinate position, have begun to emerge as one of the most pressing challenges facing some of the world's most important nations in the political sphere. This is a striking development. In the development of global ethnic issues, new trends have correspondingly emerged. On the one hand, traditional nationalism in the Third World, such as state (religious) nationalism and local (ethnic) separatism, is still alive and well. On the other hand, Western nations with good governance have experienced a variety of forms of nationalism, including Christian evangelical nationalism and separatist nationalism. The "Two Worlds," with their intertwined nationalist ideas and movements, have created a world of great uncertainty. Deep down, most people feel insecure. How can we comprehend this occurrence? While many thought about this new peculiarity or pattern of patriotism as an adverse consequence of globalization and neo-liberalism. Footnote, the Western media and the scholarly world named such successive patriot peculiarities as neo-nationalism. Footnote. Then, how should we view the phenomenon of neo-nationalism? What distinguishes neo-nationalism from traditional nationalism? Is neo-nationalism a directional phenomenon that will forever alter the political landscape of nations around the world, or is it an episodic, transitional phenomenon? The goal of this paper is to attempt a preliminary analysis.

As balance of key government funded instruction is an objective sought after by all countries, research on evening out has forever been important to unfamiliar researchers. As per James Coleman, fairness in schooling incorporates correspondence of chance, uniformity of cycle, equity of results and equity in the effect of training on life. Accordingly, equality in education entails: first, making sure everyone gets an equal education; secondly, making it possible for students to achieve a common standard through schooling; thirdly, equal opportunities for everyone to achieve their potential; fourthly, providing opportunities for individuals to continue their education until it complies with standards). Education equality, in the eyes of the OECD, entails being equitable and inclusive, ensuring that people of different sexes, socioeconomic backgrounds, and racial origins receive the fundamental minimum standard of fair education in various social settings.



Chinese scholars have been reflecting on Western and former Soviet ethnological theories in an effort to establish the Chinese School of anthropology and ethnology in the international community over the past forty years of reform and opening. On the one hand, foreign theories have had an impact on Chinese anthropology and ethnology, and on the other, Chinese scholars have been influenced by Western and former Soviet ethnological theories. The major shifts in Chinese anthropology and ethnology can be broken down into the following three phases based on the influence of other countries and the development of the field at different times: the introduction of foreign theories and the reconstruction of Chinese anthropology and ethnology from 1978 to 1990, the orientation of Chinese issues from 1990 to 2000, and the establishment of the Chinese School and its growing international influence since 2000.

In the Report on the Work of the Government in 1978, the then-Premier of the State Council emphasized the need for ongoing ethnological and other research. After a decade of stagnation, this directive marked the final national recognition of Chinese anthropology and ethnology. The China Association for Ethnic Studies was established and other relevant research institutions and higher education departments were rebuilt following the 1979 National Ethnic Studies Planning Conference. During the time that Chinese anthropology and ethnology were actively being reconstructed, China, which had been disconnected from Western anthropological and ethnological communities for a number of years, also started translating and introducing some classic works on anthropology and ethnology and introducing foreign theories in a manner that was more comprehensive and systematic. Marxist ethnology and the Soviet Union model continued to have a significant impact on Chinese anthropology and ethnology theory during this time period, primarily in two ways.


In history, nationalism was the driving force behind the creation of the modern world system and the nation-state in its modern form. It certainly represents progressive force in this way. However, it goes without saying that nationalism has brought about catastrophes like none before in this historical process. From the large-scale religious wars and endless religious persecution that began with the Reformation in the 16th century to the two world wars in the first half of the 20th century, which left hundreds of millions of people in an abyss of misery. Footnote, as well as the subsequent population cleansing and even genocide in many emerging countries, its enormous destructive power has permeated a series of events. To tame patriotism that carried gigantic debacles to humankind, Western nations started to lead the pack in laying out another arrangement of global (inner) rules after The Second Great War: (1) establishing international norms to prevent nationalism between nations, such as the United Nations Charter, which states that "all countries, big and small" are equal and forbids violations of other nations' sovereignty; (2) Creating an international human rights law that says that "all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights" and that "each State Party to the present Convention undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Convention, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status" in order to protect against nationalism, particularly racism, within The Security Council, the International Criminal Court, and the interstate accusation and acceptance of individual complaints have all been established by the United Nations and its relevant agencies in order to effectively prevent the harm caused by various nationalisms at home and abroad.

Although overall school conditions have been steadily and significantly improved, there are still some shortcomings that need to be addressed. In primary and middle schools in Tibet, the proportion of supporting staff (teaching assistants, administration, and service staff) was lower than the national average by 2020, which could have two effects: from one viewpoint, educators might have taken on heavier jobs, and then again, school activity and showing quality might have been impacted. Regarding the academic credentials of teachers, despite the overall increase in the number of highly educated teachers, middle schools continue to lack highly educated teachers. The per-student area of Tibetan high schools remains relatively low in comparison to other schools in the country, despite continued improvements in the indicators of school building area, teaching area, and auxiliary housing area. Although the total number of computers and multimedia classrooms has increased linearly over the past few years, the three indicators for each student in primary and middle schools in Tibet remain below the national average.


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