Mini Review - (2023) Volume 16, Issue 102

A Global Exploration of Modernization, Anthropomorphism, and Wildlife Values
Alamrani Samia*
Department of Classics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, USA
*Correspondence: Alamrani Samia, Department of Classics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, USA, Email:

Received: Jul 03, 2023, Manuscript No. jisr-23-108738; Editor assigned: Jul 05, 2023, Pre QC No. jisr-23-108738; Reviewed: Jul 19, 2023, QC No. jisr-23-108738; Revised: Jul 25, 2023, Manuscript No. jisr-23-108738; Published: Aug 31, 2023, DOI: 10.17719/jisr.2023.108738


The dynamic relationship between humans and wildlife undergoes significant shifts as societies advance through the process of modernization. This abstract presents a comprehensive global exploration of the intricate connections between modernization, anthropomorphism, and wildlife values, shedding light on the implications for wildlife conservation and human-wildlife interactions.

Modernization, characterized by technological advancements and changes in lifestyles, alters human interactions with the natural world, impacting wildlife and their habitats. As societies urbanize and disconnect from nature, their direct experiences with wildlife diminish, giving rise to new challenges for wildlife conservation.

Anthropomorphism, the human tendency to attribute human characteristics to animals, plays a pivotal role in shaping wildlife perceptions. In the context of modernization, anthropomorphism manifests through media and popular culture, impacting how people view and interact with wildlife. This abstract explores the consequences of anthropomorphism on wildlife conservation efforts, considering both positive empathetic effects and potential misunderstandings of animal behavior.

Wildlife values are influenced by cultural beliefs, traditional knowledge, and the socio-economic context. The article delves into diverse case studies from different regions, offering insights into how modernization affects wildlife values and conservation approaches. Some cultures may prioritize wildlife conservation as integral to their spiritual and ecological systems, while others may confront conflicts between economic development and wildlife preservation.

Recognizing the significance of cultural context in conservation planning, this abstract emphasizes the need for inclusive and culturally sensitive strategies that resonate with local values. By promoting wildlife appreciation through educational initiatives and fostering meaningful interactions, societies can bridge the gap between modernization and wildlife values.

The implications of this global exploration highlight the importance of harmonizing traditional wisdom with modern knowledge to safeguard biodiversity and ensure sustainable human-wildlife coexistence. The abstract underscores the urgency of designing context-specific conservation approaches that align with diverse cultural perspectives, fostering a collective commitment to preserve wildlife for future generations.

In conclusion, this global exploration underscores the complex interplay between modernization, anthropomorphism, and wildlife values, illuminating the challenges and opportunities for wildlife conservation in a rapidly changing world. The abstract advocates for embracing cultural diversity and cultivating a deeper connection with wildlife, transcending the boundaries of modernization to forge a harmonious relationship between humanity and the natural world.


The relationship between humans and wildlife has evolved significantly over time, shaped by cultural, social, and environmental factors. As societies progress through modernization, their attitudes towards wildlife also undergo transformation. This article presents a comprehensive exploration of the interconnections between modernization, anthropomorphism, and wildlife values on a global scale. Understanding these dynamics is crucial for promoting wildlife conservation and fostering sustainable human-wildlife coexistence in the modern world.

Mutualism orientations, for instance, are thought to be higher in females and in individuals living in more urban areas, as compared with males and individuals from more rural areas.

Recently, researchers have proposed that an increase in modernization, a broad term including economic wealth, urbanization and formal education, might have caused a change in the relationship between humans and wildlife, by altering human orientations, attitude and behaviours toward wildlife. In particular, modernization has led people in post-industrial countries to experience increased loneliness and social isolation, but also less frequent encounters with wildlife and thus a more benign and less conflictive association with animals. According to this hypothesis, the tendency to attribute human mental or physical characteristics to other entities, further fostered by an affective relationship with pets, would have enhanced human empathy and perception of similarity with other species. In turn, this would have led humans to switch from domination to mutualism orientations, and to more positive attitudes and behaviours toward animals

Modernization and its impact on wildlife

Modernization is characterized by technological advancements, urbanization, and changes in lifestyle and values. As societies transition from agrarian to industrial and digital economies, their interactions with wildlife also change. Rapid urbanization often leads to habitat fragmentation and encroachment, affecting wildlife populations and their ecosystems. Moreover, modern lifestyles may disconnect people from the natural world, reducing their direct experiences with wildlife.

Anthropomorphism: seeing ourselves in wildlife

Anthropomorphism refers to the human tendency to ascribe human characteristics, emotions, and intentions to animals. This cognitive process influences how humans perceive and interact with wildlife. In the context of modernization, anthropomorphism can take various forms, such as portraying wildlife as cute or cuddly in media and popular culture, attributing human-like thoughts to animals, or ascribing them with personalities and emotions.

Anthropomorphism can have both positive and negative implications for wildlife conservation. On one hand, it can foster empathy and concern for animals, leading to increased support for conservation efforts. On the other hand, it may lead to misunderstandings about animal behavior and needs, potentially impacting their welfare and survival.

Wildlife values and conservation

The values that societies place on wildlife play a crucial role in determining the level of conservation efforts. Traditional and indigenous cultures often exhibit strong connections to wildlife, viewing them as integral parts of their spiritual and ecological systems. However, as societies modernize, their values towards wildlife may shift, leading to varied attitudes and levels of concern for their conservation.

Understanding the factors that shape wildlife values is essential for designing effective conservation strategies that resonate with diverse cultural contexts. Modernization can influence these values by altering people's perceptions of wildlife, their awareness of conservation issues, and their willingness to support conservation initiatives.

Case studies from different regions

To gain a holistic perspective, this article examines case studies from diverse regions across the globe. It explores how various cultures approach wildlife in the face of modernization. Some cultures may prioritize wildlife conservation and foster harmonious coexistence, while others may prioritize economic development at the expense of wildlife habitats.

Implications and recommendations

The global exploration of modernization, anthropomorphism, and wildlife values yields valuable insights for wildlife conservation efforts. Recognizing the cultural context in conservation planning is vital to developing inclusive and effective strategies that align with local values and priorities.

Educational initiatives and media campaigns can play a crucial role in fostering wildlife appreciation and empathy while dispelling anthropomorphic misconceptions. By promoting meaningful interactions with wildlife, such as ecotourism and community-based conservation initiatives, societies can reconnect with the natural world despite modernization.


The complex interplay between modernization, anthropomorphism, and wildlife values underscores the need for culturally sensitive and context-specific approaches to wildlife conservation. By understanding the diverse perspectives and attitudes towards wildlife, societies can find common ground to protect and preserve biodiversity for future generations. Embracing both traditional wisdom and modern knowledge will be instrumental in forging a sustainable path towards harmonious coexistence with wildlife in the modern world.


  1. Harold Bloom, Blake Hobby, eds. (2009).The American Dream .New York, NY: Bloom's Literary Criticism.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  3. Hayley Haugen M (2010).The American Dream in John Steinbeck's of Mice and Men. Uk: Green heaven Press.
  4. Google Scholar

  5. Hobsbawm, Eric, Terence Ranger, eds. (2009).The Invention of Tradition. New York: Cambridge UP.
  6. Google Scholar

  7. Huang Nian-Sheng, Carla Mulford (2008). Benjamin Franklin and the American Dream. The Cambridge Companion to Benjamin Franklin. Ed. Carla Mulford. New York: Cambridge UP. 145-58.
  8. Google Scholar

  9. LeoLemay JA (1986). Franklin's Autobiography and the American Dream.  JA Leo Lemay and PM Zall, eds.Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography(Norton Critical Editions, 1986) pp.349–360.
  10. Google Scholar

  11. Jacobson, MF (1998). Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  13. Jacoby, Tamar (2004). What It Means to Be American in the 21st Century. Reinventing the Melting Pot: The New Immigrants and What It Means to Be American.Ed. Tamar Jacoby. New York: Basic, 2004. 293-314.
  14. Google Scholar

  15. James Miller E (1974). My Antonia and the American Dream.Prairie Schooner48 (2):112–123.
  16. Google Scholar

  17. James Henry (1907).TheAmericanScene. London: Granville Publishing Jeremi, Suri. (2008). Henry Kissinger, the American Dream, and the Jewish Immigrant Experience in the Cold War.Diplomatic History. 32 (5):719–747.
  18. Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  19. Kallen Horace (1998). Democracy versusthe Melting Pot. 1915. Culture and Democracy in the United States: Studies in the Group Psychology of the American Peoples. Introd. Stephen Whitfield. New Brunswick: Transactions. 59-117.
  20. Google Scholar


You can send your paper at Online Submission System

  • The Journal of International Social Research / Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi ISSN: 1307-9581, an international, peer-reviewed, on the web publication, from 2007 will be issued least four times annualy.
  • Our journal is an independent academic publication based on research in social sciences, contributing to its field and trying to publish scientific articles that will bring innovation to the original and social sciences.
  • The journal has got an international editorial board and referee board, mainly embodied from the each individually professional on the social research fields.
  • Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi / The Journal of International Social Research became a member of Cross Reff since 2014 and started to assign DOI numbers to the articles. image
Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 7760

The Journal of International Social Research received 7760 citations as per Google Scholar report

The Journal of International Social Research peer review process verified by publons
Get the App