Author(s): Selda MALKO├ç, Duygu VEF?KULU├çAY YILMAZ
n the Ottoman period, women expressed themselves first through the press and made their voices heard. Periodicals have been issued intended for raising the awareness of women and for ensuring that society gives the woman the value that they deserve. Women's magazines are like the mirror of the social and cultural developments in the woman issue during the process of modernization and innovation which started with Tanzimat. The second constitutional era is the period during which important breakthroughs have been realized in terms of women's movement. Turkish women's efforts to gain identity and make their voice heard in the life of the society has brought serious developments in the press world. As a result of these developments, women's magazines happened to be among the leading the endeavors through which women made their voices heard. With the start of the establishment of women's organizations in the Ottoman Empire, more than 40 magazines were published. In these magazines, the situation of women was criticized and information was given about the feminist movement in Europe. Among the apparent features of women's magazines, the fact that the founders of magazines are men (except for ?ukufezar), is some kind of a hint with regard to the process. In the press world , women's magazines and newspapers (1869-1920), which were intended for making women express themselves from their own language, were replaced by the national struggle after the beginning of the War of Independence. During the process, women's contributions were observed in the rallies.