Author(s): Veda B?L?CAN GÖKKAYA• Sezer AYAN

Urbanization, one of the important problems of societies, is usually expressed as the processes concurrent with industrialization despite the fact it follows a different formation and development course for each country. In Turkey, urbanization that does not show parallelism with industrialization gains dynamism especially with internal migrations, and the reasons such as agricultural mechanization, decrease in the fertility of the fragmented soils, effect of the climatic conditions, major changes and developments in technology (increasing opportunities in transportation, communication, etc.), urban opportunities and facilities seem/are better and more attractive compared to countryside political reasons, terror and blood feuds, etc. attract the attention when the reasons of the migrations are examined. In Turkey, as well as in all societies, internal migrations to the cities mostly affect the women despite affecting all individuals (male, female, old, young, and children) at different levels and in different directions. The woman, who has been ignored/disregarded just as the object of migration not as the subject of migration both in our country and in many other countries until recently and also has not been included in the literature, has become more visible in the • Yard. Doç. Dr. Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Sosyal Hizmet Bölümü **Doç. Dr. Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Sosyoloji Bölümü - 391 - migration process nowadays compared to the past and even turned into an important subject as an active part of this process/catalyst of the change. The woman, as an individual, subjected to migration process due to the attractive features of the cities and repulsive features of the rural areas is addressed in two forms in this process especially in our country. These are associational migration and marriage migrations. While associational migration addresses the woman accompanying the family's emigration for any reason (to find a job, to achieve better opportunities, the appointment of the wife/husband due to public service, etc.), marriage migration focuses on the migration of woman by getting married to somebody. The woman who migrates to the city for whatever reason might be faced with many negative situations from socio-cultural, psychological and economic aspects. In particular, the difficulties encountered in the economic sense further affect the woman compared to the other fields. In other words, the female population employed in agriculture in rural areas becomes unemployed along with migration. Especially in our country, the share of agriculture in employment decreases, in addition, the female labor force participation rate decreases and their employment in non-agricultural sectors becomes difficult as the labor force migration from agriculture to other sectors occurs along with the migration from rural to urban. In other words, women who become unemployed with migration to urban areas although they were agricultural workers in the rural area have to work in the face of the poverty they encounter. However, they cannot have any skilled job/profession (because they are unskilled workers) because of the fact that they cannot benefit from educational opportunities sufficiently in rural areas or they are obliged to give up their education, so they mostly work informally in home-based works. This situation deprives women of all kinds of public rights (education, health, social security, housing, nutrition, infrastructure, etc.). Therefore, the women who migrate to the city by dreaming of a better life both for themselves and their family basically obtaining better facilities and opportunities despite many different reasons become more impoverished in the city and face with negative conditions in the socio-cultural and economic sense. This situation deeply affects both women and other family members as well as the society. From this point of view, the factors that cause migration (especially unemployment) should firstly be resolved completely to remove the negative conditions of the internal migration for both individual and social development, women should be strengthened as soon as possible by completing their education and training and increasing their participation in the labor force. The objective of this study is to discuss the economic deprivation faced by women who migrate from rural to urban areas for various reasons. In this review study, the articles, books, theses, etc. related to the research were scanned by applying documentary observation, the statistical data of the studies carried out on the subject were given, the research was interpreted and reported by collecting under appropriate headings based on the data obtained. Keywords: Woman, City, Urbanization, Migration, Poverty.


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