WIND TOWERS AS PASSIVE COOLING SYSTEM IN TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS: IRAN-YAZD CITY CASE

Abstract

Author(s): Cengiz TAV?AN, Asia FARHAD?

A significant portion of the energy and water amount consumed worldwide is spent in building construction processes and buildings. A significant portion of the energy consumed by buildings is used for heating, cooling and ventilation systems, in short, for air conditioning.

A considerable part of the energy and water consumption worldwide is made on building construction processes and in buildings. A significant portion of the energy consumed by the buildings is spent on heating, cooling and ventilation systems, or briefly for climatization. In this context, especially with the energy crisis in the 1970s, sustainable solutions have gained importance and the issue of sustainability has become important in the construction sector as in every field. Sustainability has found a place for itself at every stage in the life cycle of the building, from the foundation to the demolition. Within these phases, the issue of air conditioning, which is one of the issues in the utilization process of the building, is one of the most important issues where sustainability finds its place. Climazition of buildings is divided into two groups as passive and active climazition systems. Studies on sustainability on these systems differ. Sustainability in active air conditioning systems is mostly directed towards the development of mechanical systems used in building air conditioning. In addition, passive air conditioning systems are mostly affected by the architectural form, facade openings, mass of the building. Today, many studies are carried out on passive air conditioning and sustainability. However, it is possible to come across many examples of passive air conditioning systems in the periods when traditional construction techniques were used when active air conditioning systems were primitive. These examples provide inspiration for today's architecture in passive air conditioning. These systems, which have been developed from generation to generation over time according to the climatic conditions of the place where the building is built, are sustainable technologies due to the nature of traditional construction techniques in terms of the materials they are used. Different passive climatization systems in traditional buildings can be found in many different regions of the world. The Yazd city of Iran is one of the regions where the examples of these systems can be observed. Located in Iran, this city was listed in world heritage by UNESCO in 1998. When the architecture of this city that has desert climate is analyzed, it appears that there are wind towers providing a natural ventilation effect. Wind towers make a significant contribution to natural ventilation and play a major role in the climatization of indoors against the sultry weather in the desert, especially in the summer days. In this study, the wind towers used in the traditional architecture will be examined in terms of sustainability through examples from Iran's Yazd city. The number of wind towers per building, activity statuses, construction materials, dimensions, their positioning in architecture, plans and partition types will be examined in Yazd city buildings.

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