VOICES IN JAMES JOYCE?S ?THE DEAD?: A BAKHTINIAN READING

Abstract

Author(s): Mehmet Akif BALKAYA

The aim of this paper is to examine James Joyce’s “the Dead” in Dubliners through the perspective of Bakhtinian heteroglossia, polyphony, and dialogism. The text includes representation of differences of culture, ideology and language through its characters. Joyce’s “the Dead” highlights Gabriel’s realizing his self through his dialogues and relations to other characters, whose ideologies, behaviours, culture and ways of speech impress Gabriel. It will be put forth that James Joyce does not control or dominate over the characters’ voices, allowing for and giving place to heteroglossia in his short story “the Dead”. Also, it will be propounded that the characters have their own worldviews and ideologies which constitute dialogism through their communication and interaction with one another without being finalized by the author or narrator. At the end of this paper, it will be concluded that social, cultural and historical backgrounds of each character are revealed and they are not mingled or controlled by the narrator. Therefore, Bakhtin’s terms: heteroglossia, dialogism, polyphony and unfinalization are applied to James Joyce’s “the Dead”.

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