TYPES OF SENTENCES ACCORDING TO CLASICAL SYNTAX SCIENTISTS

Abstract

Author(s): ?ahin ??M?EK

When syntax books are checked, it can easily be seen that sentence has been divided into two parts as noun sentences (subject + to be + complement) and verb sentence (subject + verb + object) since the first period. Syntax scientists did not take the side elements such as preposition and object but predicated the first word, müsned (verb) or müsnedün ileyh (subject), while determining the type of the sentence structurally. Ebu Ali el-Fârisî added adverbial clause to noun sentence and verb sentence since it took part solely the verb, though not an independent type of word, by taking the meaning into account; thus, he increased the types of sentences to four. Although this quaternary classification was accepted by great majority of syntax scientists, the rest of them objected to this. The aforementioned syntax scientists did not regard the approach in which conditional clauses were accepted as independent sentences, while the sentences such as doubt, exclamation and objection sentences, which are not different from that of conditional sentences, were not accepted as independent sentences. On the other hand, the linguists like Ibn Mâlik, who takes âmil (motive) theory as bases in sentence classification, stated that all sentences types in Arabic are included in either noun sentence or verb sentence.

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