THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN IDEOLOGY AND IDENTITY IN ORWEL'S 1984 AND PAMUK'S SNOW

Abstract

Author(s): Bet羹l ENSAR?

This paper examines the close relation between power and knowledge in the construction of identity by analyzing in what ways the characters in 1984 and Snow deal with the obligations of ideology imposed on them by the state in the framework of comparative literature. The methodology of comparative literature enables us to compare 1984 and Snow regardless of their authors' different historical and cultural backgrounds. In doing so, it makes us realize that the struggle for freedom is a cross-cultural issue. Borrowing various methods from different disciplines such as sociology and gender studies comparative literature helps us to read the novels from different perspectives. Concerning this, it is necessary to analyze the fight of the main characters against the hegemonic power over the bodies of individuals in the novels, even though they are aware of the punishment and torture they will face as a result of their resistance in relation to Stuart Hall's definition of identity and culture. Additionally, in the light of Foucault’s methodology, this paper discusses which strategies the authorities use to standardize societies and constitute 'imaginative communities' that share similar values and thoughts. Besides, the relation between gender and power in the construction of identity is also explored. Applying Judith Butler's ideas, a special emphasis is given on the female struggle against the masculine hegemony over the fragmentation of female identities portrayed in Pamuk's Snow where some Muslim female students are subjected to double-discriminated by laciest ideology because of their gender and religious identity. Finally this article points out that in comparison to the female character in 1984 the female characters in Snow defeat masculine discourses that try to control female bodies by creating 'a third space' for themselves.1

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