THE SOCIO-POLITICAL DIALOG IN THE POETRY OF MUHAMMAD FUZ?L? (D.963/1556)

Abstract

Author(s): Maryam MUSHARRAF

Muhammad Fuz?l? (d.c. 963/1556) a Poet of the 16th century who lived in Baghdad, used to write poetry in three languages: Persian, Turkish and Arabic. Originated from the Oghuz tribe of Bayat, this lyric poet has brought to light different social and political events and conflicts of his time through his divergent poetic work. The era in which he flourished, was the scene of bitter rivalries and hard clashes between regional powers of the time, i.e. Iran, under the ?afav?ds, and the Ottoman Empire. Additionally, two religious ideologies of Sun? and Shi’a played their own role in the struggle for power in the region. Despite being respected as a man of theosophy and literature among intellectual segments of Baghdad, Fuz?l? could by no means get close to neither ?afav?d’s nor Ottoman’s Court. What was the cause of Fuz?l? ’s social and political isolation? In some of his poetry, he apologizes to an anonymous king for an unknown “Sin”. But he never explains what this sin was. Considering the complex political situation of the era in which Fuz?l? lived, I am putting forward this suggestion that Fuz?l? was trying to play both sides in regional competitions of Ottoman and Iranian governments during 16th century. However, this dangerous game not only had no achievements for him, but also enhanced his instability even more.

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