THE OTTOMAN?S KUT-AL-AMARA VICTORY WITH BEFORE AND AFTER

Abstract

Author(s): Figen ATABEY

In this paper, the Mesopotamian Front on which the Ottoman’s Kut-al-Amara victory, one of the most brillant victories of the Ottoman Army was won in the First World War, will be evaluated in general terms. Following the British declaration war on the Ottoman Empire on 5 November 1914, the British landed troops to the town of Fao in Shatt-al-Arab on November 6, 1914. British troops were gaining soil rapidly at the beginning; however, they were defeated by the Ottoman forces in Ctesiphon on November 22-25,1915 and forced to retreat back towards Kut al-Amara. On 7 December, 1915, the siege of Kut began. The Ottoman troops laid siege to Kut- alAmara, thus the British were unable to receive any aid nearly for five months. Nearly all the relief attempts of the Tigris Corps were failed during the siege of Kut. General Townshend and the 6th Indian Division surrendered on 29 April 1916 by the Sixth Army under the command of Halil (Kut) Pasha. Following the victory of Kut-al-Amara, the Ottoman General Staff ignored the British preparations. The Ottoman Sixth Army withdrew one of the two existing corps from Kut-al-Amara front to Persia. This set the stage for the British sucessful offensive of 1917 which led to the capture of Kut on 25th February 1917, and the occupation of Baghdad on 11th March 1917. The British advanced to the south of Musul up till 30 October, 1918.

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