Author(s): Zafer ŞAFAK

Examined in close relationship with the theories and literary criticisms, which backs up fiction and narration, English novel has evolved with an unprecedented level in the 20th century. In view of literary criticism which is inseparable from the development and analysis of novel, core values and tendencies are as diverse as the number of arguments put forward in any particular literary criticism. They are diverse to the extent of contradicting or negating one another: While some, like Formalism ostracized utility and pragmatic concerns, some others, like New Historicism, has posited that literature and novel cannot be evaluated beyond the scope of political, social and historical concerns. While it might be hard to pinpoint a shared point among these diverging school of thoughts that have directed the course of the evolution of the novel in the 20th century, common ground is observed to be the hostility against Western hierarchies and preoccupation with the significance of language particularly after the 1960s. Starting from Thomas Hardy and exemplifying such modernist novelist as James Joyce and Virginia Woolf and stretching up to William Golding of 1950s and 1960s of Anthony Burgess and shifting to postmodern novelists such as Jeanette Winterson, the present study aims to present a generalpanorama of directions of novel in English literature in the twentieth century in a lineer manner with specific reference to the literary criticisms that have fostered the emergence of the works in question.


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