REFLECTIONS OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS BASED ON INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN LITERATURE: GERMINAL BY 丏ILE ZOLA

Abstract

Author(s): Bekir GZEL

Industrial revolution is definitely one of the most significant milestones for the history of humanity. Production based on human power was replaced with machine power by industrialization. In accordance with this, two groups of people named as capital and labor struggling for survival emerged in the field economy. Similarly; in social life, society based on agriculture was replaced with industry. Thus, individuals and values of humanity have gained little importance. These problems in social life were reflected by literature which takes depicting societies to their own people as one of the fundamental duties. Accordingly, literary works are reflections of societies’ collective consciousness. This transition period was meticulously observed particularly by naturalist authors and reflected in their works. One of these prominent authors is Émile Zola who depicted French society in a very detailed way. In this study, social problems followed by industrial revolution are traced in Germinal by Émile Zola, and the problems are explained in titles with examples from the novel.

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