Author(s): Necati AYKON

H. 41 / M. 661, founded by Hazrat Muawiyah, the Umayyad state had stood for 90 years. The state was founded on the Arab element and Non-Arabs were not easily assigned top-level positions. During 90 years at reign, despite the fact that good Works and conquests were carried out in the management of dicisive caliphs, some mistakes causes the destruction of state. The governance turned to inheritence system. Sometimes one, sometime two crown princes were appointed. Every new administrator had removed the crown princes appointed in the previous term and replaced them with his own son or brother, which in time caused the beginning of fights of throne. Tribolism spread, even if they were muslims, those who Non-Arabs had been despised and exalted. Non-Islamic lifestyles of some caliphates were not accepted. The events and situations such as Karbalah and Harrah, the attack of Makkah and Madinah, and the state of being threated Non-Arabs as a second-class citizen; led to the formation of dissatisfied masses. These groups multipled quickly and revolted from time to time. This and similar events resulting in non-qualified caliphates to reign, created gops in state administrotion, adversely affected the state economy, safes were emptied and day by day it turned into an inconceivable situation. The Abbasid inviters who influenced the dissatisfied groups, hastened their propagandas and demolished the Umayyad state.


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