Author(s): Tuba ÖZHAZİNEDAR

reedom of thought and expression are the basic elements of democracy. In order to obtain freedom of thought and expression, mankind has been fighting since the first ages. This right covers not to be condemned because of ideas, to be able to reach news and ideas through all kinds of media, to be able to spread the ideas obtained freely. Communication and dissemination of ideas, provision of information to the individuals and to the community are provided through the press and mass media. Takvim-i Vekayi newspaper's publication in 1831 was the first experience of the Ottoman Empire with the press. With the Tanzimat period, when the press had the opportunity to spread ideas, illuminate people and express the ideas of the opposition as well, and the Tercuman -? Ahval was launched in 1864, the state’s struggle with the press also began. The state had imposed restrictions on the media to silence any opinion that went against it. The first law put into action was the Matbuat Nizamnamesi (Press Law), 1864. Various regulations were prepared in due course. The press and mass media, which was ssmall in scale at the beginning, grew variety, quality and quantity wise after the declaration of the IInd Constitutional Monarchy. The fact that a great majority of them were on the opposition side and aimed to raise public awareness of their own views had made the state uneasy and led various measures to be taken in defense. Some of them were silenced by the restrictions, censorship, penal sanctions put into action, and at the point these measures were not found sufficient, the journalists were sent to exile or they were deprived of their right to live.


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