OTTOMAN PERIOD IMARETS IN THE LIGHT OF SOME 16TH CENTURY WAQFIYYAS

Abstract

Author(s): Habibe KAZANCIOGLU

The imârets founded inspired by the verses and hadiths of the Islamic religion that encourage social solidarity are the Ottoman institutions which are important in socio-economical terms in the waqf system. It is called imâret in the broad meaning of the building communities that are a few or all of the buildings which are formed of school, madrasah, library, tomb, dârü'?-?ifâ, dârü'zziyâfe, zâviye and fountain etc. In a narrow meaning, imârets are the institutions where madrasah students, poor people, passengers and guests meet their food needs. With the speeding up of the construction of the kulliye in the 16th century, the imârets, the mosque, school, madrasah, tabhâne, ?ifahâne, caravanserai among the institutions. Imârets can be built separately as well as built in the kulliye. However, it is also seen that the imârets built separately as a mosque and a madrasah, which are built around the time, become some külliye together with the structures of waqf. One of the most important ways of attaining tangible informations about the functioning of imârets is the waqfiyyas of these institutions as well as about the other structures of waqfs belonging to the Ottoman period. Because there are informations in the waqfiyyas, that including the special circumstances of the charitable founder , especially about the the income of the waqf the characteristics sought for the employees, the salaries of the employees, and the people who will benefit from the foundation. Although the separately founded imârets have a their own waqfiyya, the imârets within the kulliyes do not have private waqfiyya. Because it constitutes a single waqfiyya for all of the institutions within the kulliye and the part belonging the imâret also took place in the waqfiyya that belongs to the kulliye. In the part of the waqfiyya contains to the entire of kulliye, the charitable founder begins to explain the purpose of establishing his own imâret. Then charitable founder indicates who will benefit from his own imâret - if there is no special condition of the charitable founder- these people are the poor, the workers of the kulliye, the madrasah students, the passengers and the guests. These social classes that benefiting from imârets have an important place in society in terms of numbers. In this way, the imârets in addition to performed activities as a social work institution in the cities where they are in, they have indirectly contributed to the education. Moreover, that the imârets serve passengers, without discrimination of religion, language and race, is indicating that these institutions are founded as purely for charity purposes. In this study, the imârets are examined and waqfiyyas of The Bayezid Kulliye, The Suleymaniye Kulliye, The Konya Sultan II. Selim Kulliye, The ?ehzâde Mehmed Kulliye, The Yenisehir Sinan Pasha Kulliye, The Skopje Coban Mustafa Pasha Kulliye and The Kara Ahmed Pasha Kulliye are taken as basis.

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