Author(s): Tuğba AKGÜR

Chinese society has lived in the direction of Confucianism (Rujia ??) for centuries, and these doctrines constitute the contents of civil service examinations. Throughout history, dynasties have accepted the transfer of Confucian ideas and teachings, that focuses on issues such as the necessity of being a virtuous person, the importance of traditions and customs, to younger generations as the main goal of education. In this respect, although Confucianism ensured Chinese culture and values come right up to the present day, the teachings of Confucianism has been seen as an obstacle against the modernization of Chinese society. Chinese people become acquainted with Western science and technology by means of the very first missionaries who traveled to China from the late 16th century onwards. After suffering severe military defeats by Western powers as well as Japan in the next centuries, they realized how underdeveloped they are in terms of science and technology, thus the inevitability of a reform in education. This study will emphasize on social reform efforts embarked upon successive defeats, together with the process of modernization in Chinese education


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