Author(s): Önder B?LG?N?
The concepts of temperament (mizaç), habit (huy), character are often confused and used interchangeably. However, according to Ibn-i Sînâ, temperament is the circumstance that emerged from the result of interaction of the opposite properties of elements. The temperament, which is the biological basis of the individuality of the self and its properties, is different from the habit. Temperatures cannot be changed by education because they are innate characteristics. On the other hand, habit is all of the spiritual and creation properties of human being. Also, habits can be changed through education. In this study, is there a relationship between ’the main motivating reason of our actions’ which is the source of our actions and our temperaments? Are temperament and habit differential concepts? Temperament or habit, which one is the more related to the structure of the body? Are temperament and habit in the same position? Where is the position of faith, reason, and soul? Position of temperament can be also added to these questions. The answer to this last question is directly related to the nature of the temperament by all means. We should ask ourselves that whether ‘temperament thought to be closely related to temper, disposition, moral quality, nature, temper and character in the meaning of morality, is a thing which changing, growing, shrinking, losing balance, aging, rejuvenating, died in the same body or not. Temperament-centered morality is the situation that allows the self to reveal its own acts without thinking. This situation is divided into two: First one is the natural morality caused by temperament. This is the case of people who can be laughter for smallest thing, can be furious and excited for the smallest thing, and can be scared for the smallest voice or news. The second one is the morality gained by habit and education. In the beginning, it occurs by contemplating and gradually becomes a ritual, habit and custom. Moraphilosophy history and moral education evaluate habit and temperament as same and tend to see human being either optimistic or pessimistic or both at a point in the middle without paying much attention to the distinction between habit and temperament. However, the situation is much more complex, diverse and multicolored than it appears. This article, with reference to El-Kânûn Fit-T?bb, discusses the temperaments of the body physiologically in the context of the theory of component and tries to show the relationship with the ethical by combining component and temperament. The main problem of this article is that what Ibn-iSînâ called the temperament, is a moral philosophy problem today? Is it a body philosophy problem? Or is it a physiology problem? If the theory of temperament is only the problem and the concept of a moral philosophy, it should be dealt with along with physiology. If we think temperament theory as a problem of body philosophy, we still need a great support of physiology. Physiology, that is a branch of science that emerge from the combination of the word ”physis’’ which means nature in Greek and the word ‘logos’ which means science in Greek, investigates from the molecular level to the cell, tissue, organ, system and organism levels. This relationship between science of physiology and temperament can feed a new body philosophy. If temperament is both a problem of philosophy of morality and a problem of body philosophy, it should not be considered independent from physiology because that temperament is a concept and problem of ethics, philosophy of body and physiology. In other words, physiology is related to temperament; temperament is related to morality; morality is related to body; body is related to physiology, temperament and morality. Then if we can show the relationship between physiology, temperament, morality, and body, we can reconstruct our educational understanding accordingly. This article suggests that effort and time should not be spent for those who cannot be changed through a temperamentcentered education. Temperament should be seen as a defacto situation. By leaning over habit and educable aspect of human being, more quick and accurate moral education, physical education and value education should be considered.