Author(s): Ey羹p ZENGIN

Cultural, scientific, political and commercial relations between countries have also led to interactions in the field of language. The languages, the means of communication, have influenced each other for various reasons; have interchanged words, phrases and sentences. This interaction has even caused the change of grammatical structures. This interaction can be bilateral as well unilateral; due to the technical, scientific, economic, social etc. reasons a language comes to dominate the other language. With the reception of foreign words, terms, and phrases, the number of foreign elements in dictionaries of languages have increased, and changes have also occurred in the syntactic structures of some languages. Turkish has interacted with many languages during its historical development, either from the same language family or from other language families, and it was generally the affected language in this interaction, not the one that affected the other languages. In this interaction, Turkish received some items from other languages and similarly gave them some items. The acceptance of religious beliefs has an important place in the interaction of the Turkish language with other languages. During the Uighur period, Buddhism and Manichaeism were accepted and words from languages such as Chinese, Sanskrit, Tocharian and Sogdian were taken. After the acceptance of Islam, an important interaction between Turkish and Arabic as well as Persian can be seen. Because of the influences of European cultures, the Turkish language has been influenced by the French language since the 16th century and English since the 19th century. Apart from these important languages, this interaction can be seen from languages such as Chinese, Russian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Serbian, Italian, Greek, and the words have been interchanged between these languages and Turkish. As a result of the interactions, he lexical and syntactic structures of the tongues have inevitably changed.


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