INTELLECTUAL AND POLITICAL MOVEMENTS FROM PETER TO THE USSR IN RUSSIA

Abstract

Author(s): Naz PENAH, Elchin SHAK?ROV

icance, it became the goal of power centers as powerful as she herself did. To protect against this danger, Russia has developed military, intellectual and political measures. In addition to the desire of Russians to become world powers, there is a fear of extinction. The rulers of this period and the peoples of Russia paid heavily for all these bills. The intellectual and political movements of Russia from the past to the present have been based on these desires and concerns. The intellectual and political movements taking place in Europe spread to the tsar, the state, and then to the public in tsarist Russia and intellectuals formed from all occupations. Russian intellectuals tried to reconcile some of their theories about “identity” and building a “just society” with Russian realities, which they borrowed from Western Europe. The Russian intelligentsia, which existed in the history of Russia, sought to bring Russia to universal humanity. The common troubles of these intellectuals were "Slavism, Orthodoxy, and equal morality." Finally in the first half of XIX. Centuries in the world and in Russia, an ideological and socio-political struggle flared up. Although this struggle ended in victory for the revolutionary and national liberation movements in some Western countries, the ruling classes in Russia were able to maintain the current economic and socio-political order. However, the Russian intelligentsia and the peoples of Russia realized the need for profound changes at all costs. The growth of economic and political unrest prompted society to seek an ideological justification for the current regime, which continued to hold the palace. In the second half of XIX. For centuries, ideologists representing various sectors of Russian society began to develop programs that could meet the needs of society. The emerging intellectual and political currents pulled tsarist Russia to destruction and led to the establishment of a new regime in Russia. The intellectual, who emerged as “classical Eurasianism” in the 1920s as one of the Russian intellectual movements, is a synthesis of all Russian intellectual movements that existed or disappeared to this day. Classical Eurasianism, born among the intellectuals exiled during the October Revolution, rejecting the glory (!) of Western civilization, determines the uniqueness of the Russian nation and civilization and national identity on a conservative basis. He offers practical plans to strengthen this identity. NeoEurasianism refers to classical Eurasianism. Today, neo-Eurasianism is the dominant geopolitical ideology in Russia.

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