Author(s): Ömer TOKUŞ

The reign of the Seljuks in Baghdad began in 447 (1055) and lasted until the death of Tughrul III 590 (1194) who is the ruler of the Seljuks of Iraq. During the Seljuks' administration in Baghdad that lasted nearly a century and a half, there were many incidents of human and biological disasters. They consist of human disasters, internal conflicts, that is, sectarian factors, the fires caused by neglect, arson, and finally beacuse of unknown reasons. The fires were mostly concentrated in administrative and commercial centers where Baghdad's population was high. In addition to human disasters, biological disasters were emerged such as epidemics and locust infestation, which humans and animals were exposed to. In particular, diseases that caused the death of many people such as plague/pestilence, birsam (zatülcenp), sersam (meningitis) and smallpox disease (el-Cudari) spread among people and animal causing mass deaths were also seen in Baghdad. In addition, it is understood that the price increases and scarcity caused by locust invading agricultural products have a significant effect on the emergence of epidemics. Along with Human and biological disasters observation of celestial bodies was also recorded. In particular, the information given about falling star/meteorite, stars and planets, solar and lunar eclipses is important in terms of showing the extent reached by astronomy. In this study, incidents of human, biological disasters and observations of the sky and interesting events spread among the people in Baghdad were studied, and the mentioned effects of the sources were presented.


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