HOLDING THE PASS OVER THE BRIDGEHEADS: THE ATTEMPTS OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE TO FORTIFY THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND THE CHANNELS OF BLACK SEA

Abstract

Author(s): Salih KIS

Ottoman Empire was defeated against Russia in 1877-78 in a consequence of result process and result. Since there was danger of losing stanbul against the enemy during the war, the fear of losing its existence was dominant. For that reason, a serial of activities to secure the straits and strengthen the capital city through modernizing defending systems were started. Especially, Sultan Abdulhamid the II especially invited Belgian General Henri Alexis Brialmont who had a great fame in military engineering to fortify the Straits of Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea which are the bridgeheads of the capital city. General Brialmont was invited because he had successively fortified the capitial cities of Romania and Bulgaria. In this study, the process which General Brialmont arrived in Ottoman Empire and his activities to fortify the Straits were discussed.

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