Author(s): Yahya BAĞÇECİ

Assignment of Muhammad Ali Pasha as the governor of Egypt started a new area in Egypt’s history. Strengthening his authority in Egypt by a disciplined government, Muhammad Ali Pasha also managed to develop the country through development thrusts. He managed to establish a modern army and navy in a short period of time but his passion would go beyond the boundaries of Egypt. By taking action to conquer Syria, he started a decade in which he would leave the Ottoman Empire in a very difficult situation. The path to Istanbul was now wide open for the Egyptian army, which had proved its superiority to the Ottoman army. The imminent danger of the Ottoman’s collapse resulted in the involvement of the Big Powers. Although the first part of the issue concluded in favor of Muhammad Ali Pasha, he could not resist in the second half and had to content himself with Egypt. He succeeded, nevertheless, in making Egypt semiautonomous and establishing his own dynasty therein. Admitting that he would not be able to run after his passion to conquer the world, the Pasha saw that it was best to submit to the Ottoman Empire, contenting himself with Egypt. His Istanbul visit of 1846 was an indication of his obedience. The Sublime Porte, which surely did not desire a new Egyptian problem, was also very happy for this visit. The Elderly Pasha was honored by the young sultan’s complements. When he returned to Egypt, he calmly spent the last years of his life, working to develop Egypt further. When he noticed the first signs of his dementia, Ottoman Empire designated his son, Ibrahim Pasha, as the new governor in 1848.


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