Author(s): M. Zeki DUMAN
The modern western world has been the field of clashes between different ideologies for the last two centuries, especially between liberalism and socialism and Marxism and Conservatism. The clashes that have arisen are usually caused by the destruction of the traditional social order of the Middle Ages and establishment of a new world order on an enlightened, rationalistic and militarist basis by the French Revolution. The promises made by the revolution in the name of humanity and the devastating consequences it created have also been influential not only in continental Europe but also in the rest of the world. The revolution has not only destroyed radical political institutions and the institutions that represent these regimes but have also caused radical changes in the social and economic context. These changes, which take place in a highly repressive and coercive manner, have resulted in the creation of some forms of thought that contain opposite ideas and do not accept changes that take place. One of these forms of thought has been the conservatism that advocates the traditional social life having increasingly difficult position and resisted to oppression of nationalism emerged as a product of the revolution. Conservatism, which must be seen as a form of thought and attitude as well as an ideology and doctrine opposed radicalism, totalitarianism, fascism and secularism as a product of the enlightened mind. While the conservatives cautiously approach large-scale economic and political changes that take place in society, they requested preservation of traditional institutions, values and structures that are the asylum of the individual. Robert Nisbet is one of the contemporary conservative thinkers who emphasize the importance of the "intermediate institutions", which are in particular functioning to remove the pressure of the bureaucratic state over the individual. This article, which examines the work of the thinker titled "conservatism" we focus on the revolutionary sociology in general, and conservative thought tradition in particular.