EARTHQUAKE AND METEOROLOGICAL DISASTERS IN BAGHDAD DURING THE PERIOD OF SELJUKS (H.447-590/M.1055-1194)

Abstract

Author(s): mer TOKU?

After arrival of the Great Seljuk ruler Tughrul Beg to Baghdad in 447 (1055), the Seljuk domination that began in Iraq continued to 590 (1194) despite the strength of the Abbasid caliphs from time to time in order to regain their political power. Baghdad was generally dominated by the Great Seljuk State until 513 (1119). After Muhammad Tapar died in 512 (1118), his son Mahmud was replaced by him and also Mahmud’s uncle Sancar refused his reign then in 513 (1119), Mahmud was defeated by Sancar in Save, and then he was appointed as Hemedan as the center in western Iran and Iraq. Thus, a new state called the Iraqi Seljuks emerged and played a significant role in the political-military events in the region until it was demolished in 590 (1194). In this study, during the time of the domination of the Great Seljuk State to Baghdad in 447 (1055) until the fall of the Iraqi Seljuks in 590 (1194), earthquakes, storm, frost and snowfall, floods, Drought and famine in Baghdad, were investigated. In this context, the effects, the duration, the places where they are seen and the way of perception of the earthquakes in Baghdad are emphasized. Furthermore, storms and meteorological phenomena which are described as yellow, black or red, when they are seen they cause damage by hot and cold weather waves such as frost which damages agricultural products, the effects of which on increases of price are clearly identified. In addition to this, it is possible to see that snowfall, especially the hails depicted as big as a citrus, and perhaps most importantly floods or floods caused by the increase in the water level of the Dicle River bring about important changes in the economic, social and architectural structure of Baghdad

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