Author(s): Dadash Mutallimov*
Umar is a name that has gained management experience with his previous duties as embassy and consultancy. On this occasion, he got to know very well the region he lived in, the balance between the tribes and the neighboring states of the Arabs. After he became the Caliph, he carried Islam away from the Arabian Peninsula due to the contribution of these experiences. Islam reached Azerbaijan in his time. As a result of the long years of struggle between Byzantium and Sassanid (603-628), Azerbaijani lands came under the rule of Sassanid politically. Although the Azerbaijani territories were politically under the Sassanid rule, the Arab armies came face to face with the local people during the conquest. As a matter of fact, the conquered Berde, Sheki, Belencer, Nakhchivan, Gorus, Gebele, Shirvan, Shabran and Aran regions are in the current Azerbaijani religions. Umar carried out his conquests on three fronts. The first is the Iraqi front where the Sassanid’s are located; the second is the Palestine, Egypt and Damascus front against the Byzantines. The third front was towards Azerbaijan and the around the Caucasus. The Caliph won victories by appointing commanders to the conquest regions and expanded the Islamic lands in this context.
Since we will deal with the conquests of Umar in Azerbaijan in this article, we will not describe all the wars he made in his caliphate. We will talk about Umar taking Islam to Azerbaijani lands. Islam spread rapidly in these lands due to the living conditions and beliefs of the Turks close to the principles of the religion of Islam. Turks living in these regions for a long time have believed in a single god. Thus, the local people of the country did not have much difficulty in accepting Islam. It is for this reason that Islam spread peacefully during the conquest of the Azerbaijani lands by Umar.