CLARKE'S (1891) TRANSLATION OF GHAZAL 167 BY HAFEZ: A TEXT-BASED APPROACH IN CRITICISM AT LINGUISTIC LEVEL BASED ON REISS' (1971) MODEL

Abstract

Author(s): Ameneh MOHAGHEGH

This research is an attempt to apply a text-based approach of translation criticism proposed by Reiss (1971) to examine Clarke's (1891) English translation of Ghazal 167 of Hafez. What is under the focus in the present study is evaluation of linguistic elements which itself consists of four parts. Comparing the Original Persian poem with its translation, the researcher came up with the conclusion that at linguistic level, there are a number of cases in which the translator's misreading of the original poem has led to the mistranslation and due to his literal rendering some idioms have been translated unintelligibly. Moreover, it is concluded that Clarke considers different referents (the Beloved (God), Prophet Mohammad, the beloved) for metaphors throughout the poem. However, he does not mention Shah Shoja as one of the referents and consequently misses one of the most significant layers of meaning in this poem. Shah Shoja was a particular favorite of Hafez and according to Ghani (1944), Homayoun Farokh (1976), Zo-alnur (1984) and Khoramshahi (1989), this Ghazal is a panegyric in explicit praise of him.

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