Author(s): Mehmet ÇEVIK, Murat YILDIZ

Marine transportation is the most preferred type of transportation for the reasons like the size of payload capacity, safer and cheaper transport compared to overland, rail and air transportation. Nowadays, about 95 % of the importand export goods moved in world trade are transported by sea. Flourishing ship industry along with sectors like the ship yard industry, engine, iron and steel, castiron, electrical and electronics, wood and furniture sectors is an important part of industrialisation. The maritime industry is of a great importance for Turkey, which is surrounded by sea on three side sand has a total of 7618 km. long coastline, as well.

With approximately a thousand-year of history, Turkish Maritime experienced difficult periods after peak, and the measures taken weren't sufficient. From the 19th century, although Turkish Naval Operations was managed by different administrations, the only change was the names, and some how desired success couldn't be attained. After years of protracted war, the worn ship building industry and maritime business were overshadowed by the priority sectors such as railways and highways in the Republican period, and couldn't show the expected improvement. The lack of adequate capital in the country, being very high capital and technology requiring industry, has been among the important factors of under development in the ship building industry. In the early years of the Republic, to break foreign dominance in marine businesses and to provide marine transportation vianational vehicles, cabotage law was enacted. Since our ship yards lack an adequate level of producing high-tonnage ships equipped with modern technology, filling the gap was prevented.

As a result of the liberal policies of the Democratic Party, ship yards and marine businesses were gathered under Turkish Maritime Bank Inc. Which was founded in 1952, and they were tried to be convertedintoprofitableindustrieswithadvancedcommercialfleetsbythebank'sinvestments, and rescued from cumber some and non-developing structure of Turkish Maritime by giving 49% of the shares to natural and legal persons. With the laws enacted during this period, the necessary amnesties were provided for the development of private sector shipping industry and marine operations, and the way fortheen try of foreign capital to country was paved. Thus, Turkish Maritime was aimed to reach a contemporary position.


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