Author(s): Ali BLGENOLU
In this essay, the relation between the growth of cotton production in Egypt in the 19th century and the effects of the American Civil War (1861-1865) on it, will be examined. Cotton famine was one of the biggest results of the American Civil War that effected the world. Before the civil war Britain was the leading purchaser of the American cotton which was producted in the Southern plantations of the country. After the outburst of the war, Britain lost her important cotton producer, which made her look for different alternatives. Among India and the Ottoman Empire, Egypt was accepted as a rich source by the British. In a short time, Egypt became a fertile land to afford the need of the British textile centers for cotton as a raw material. This process continued until the beginning of the twentieth century. As a result of this process, Egypt developed economically and soon became an important economic center in the Middle East. The British also benefited the process and got the sovereignty of Egypt and Sudan in a very short time. Also, the famous British textile centers, such as Lancashire and Manchester, continued their prouctions with the Eyptian cotton. In this article, the process itself and its effects on Egypt, and the British policies over the Middle East will be examined.