Author(s): ?dris YAKUT, Kemaleddin TA?
Piety, both an individual and a social phenomenon, is a relative concept in which a single definition cannot be made because it is influenced by many factors. Today, although the concept of piety, where religious beliefs, worship, emotions, knowledge and influence dimensions are mentioned, it is not possible to define the limits of piety. Because every society and even every individual's view of religion and understanding of religion may be different. In this context, multidimensional scales have been developed to measure the piety seen as a multidimensional phenomenon. In this study, it is aimed to develop a scale by considering the structure of Iranian society in order to determine the religious understanding and religiousness of university students in Iran. The study is a Likert type scale that measures four different dimensions of being religious. Validity and reliability studies were carried out in the light of data obtained from 900 university students determined by random sampling method studied at Tehran University in Iran in 2017-2018 academic year. Factor analysis was applied to reveal the construct validity of all four dimensions of the scale. The factor loadings of the religious belief dimension of the scale were between 0.454-0.881, the factor loadings of the worship dimension were 0.648-0.879, the factor loadings of the emotion dimension were 0.867-0.948, and the factor loads of the effect dimension were 0.332-0.894. Religious belief scale KMO = 0.965 and Bartlett test = 0.965, Religious worship scale KMO = 0.957 and Bartlett test = 15315,606, Religious emotion scale KMO = 0.871 and Bartlett test = 5268,656, the effect of religion on social life scale KMO = 0.895 and Bartlett test = 8413,54, it was decided that factor analysis was interpretable. Likewise, the reliability studies of the scales were made by calculating the internal consistency coefficient (Cronbach’s Alpha) values and the internal consistency coefficients of religious belief, worship, emotion and effect scales were found to be 0.967 - 0.966 - 0.955 - 0.857, respectively. The results obtained from the validity and reliability studies show that the scales are valid and reliable instruments.