Author(s): Taner KILI├ç* Se├žkin HARDAL**
Urban Transformation is a multi-faceted process that causes the transformation of cities in a physical and social sense. In Turkey, urban transformation is tested in different periods, but it became a current issue after the 1999 Marmara Earthquake. Although the urban transformation studies were included in the government programs since 2002, the construction of the comprehensive projects was carried out in 2012 with the Law No. 6306 on the Transformation of Areas Under Disaster Risk. As a result of the intense migrations and population growth in Istanbul; It is the largest of our cities, which are experiencing the problems of squattering, illegal construction and the urbanization due to them. Today, urban regeneration projects have started to be implemented in the squatter areas, especially in the central location of the city. With the acceleration of the process, urban transformation projects were completed in many districts of Istanbul and the multidimensional consequences of urban transformation began to become more visible. The aim of this study is; to examine the spatial and social consequences of the completed urban transformation projects with a critical approach. During the research, qualitative research methods such as participation observation and interview were used. Interviews were conducted with the residents of the neighborhoods with completed urban transformation projects and semi-structured forms. While determining the sample group; The head of households and the people who have knowledge about the subject were cared for.
The people affected by the transformation are generally positive in terms of renewal of houses, becoming more robust and the neighborhood being more organized. However, the transformation is not limited to these results, and the economic implications for the transformation of the cities with the neoliberal policies implemented. Private firms with project contractors make high profits from the transformation process and become the winning side of urban transformation projects. Considering the socio-economic characteristics of the people living in urban regeneration areas, they are the beneficiaries of the profit that is expected to be of major benefit. However, as it can be understood from the interviews and observations, the residents cannot benefit from the increase in rent and they have a serious borrowing problem for their new houses. In addition, the process of urban transformation and after; It is also observed that there are significant problems in terms of spatial segregation, ethnic and cultural exclusion, inability to adapt to the transformed areas in social and cultural terms.