Author(s): Serdar U?URLU
Although these ceremonies performed by Shamans and Kams are due to the various religious-mystical and magical beliefs, they are important in forming the first association of poem and music in our culture. We have been able to carry this period, in which poem, music and dance performed together, to the tenth century that is the century Turks begun to accept Islam. Islamic religion begun to be dominant on Turkish culture and language life and this case interrupted the tradition formed and the art performed by the artisans called as Shaman and Kam. As of this date, increasing of work sharing and number of profession branches in Turkish communities put an end to this collocation of poem, music and dance in ceremonies of Shamans and then of Kams afterwards Islam. By leaving this association, poem and music created a particular form apart from dance. The increasing dominance of Islamic religion among Turks has deepened this separation also in sense of language. As from XI century, therefore, encomiasts grown by Arabic and Persian language and culture began to take the places of Shamans, Kams and Ozans in the palaces of Ghaznavid and Seljuk. Afterwards Islam, as from XIII century in particular, as a result of increasing number of sufistic religious orders originating from Arabic and Persian, such as Mevlevîsm and Alevî-Bektashism, it is seen that association of poem and music was dragged in a more different channel and continued. Tradition of being a poet maintained by traditional folk speech and culture, gave its place to the language of poem and music formed by religious-sufistic culture. While “Mevlevî Sema Ceremony”, which appears again in accordance with Mevlevîsm morals, accompanies with the poem and music came together in context of Mevlevîsm tradition; “Alevî-Bektashi Semah Ceremony” accompanies with the poem and music in context of Alevî-Bektashi tradition. As from XVI century, as a result of decreasing effects of sufistic movements; minstrels who perform their non-religious poems in company with their instruments, has grown up in context of the tradition that we called as “Minstrelsy Tradition”.