RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL INDIVIDUALISM/COLLECTIVISM BIGFIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND SELF ESTEEM

Abstract

Author(s): Mehmet Ertu?rul UAR, Bilge KONAL

In cross cultural and social psychology self is defined as dependent and interdependent which explain effect of culture to self. In cross cultural and social psychology point of view use dependence-interdependence self rather than individualism-collectivism. In this approach dependence-interdependence are how individuals feel and behave regardless individuals live in which society and part of society. The contribution of social psychological and cross cultural psychology is depending on framework of the individualismcollectivism. However the meanings attributed to dependence-interdependence caused to confusion in explaining individual’s behavior and attribute like individualism-collectivism. Triandis reviews of the literature highlighted that it is important to make the distinction between vertical and horizontal individualism/collectivism. Vertical collectivism includes perceiving the self as a part (or an aspect) of a collective and accepting inequalities within the collective. Horizontal collectivism includes perceiving the self as a part of the collective, but seeing all members of the collective as the same; thus equality is stressed. Vertical individualism includes the conception of an autonomous individual and acceptance of inequality. Horizontal individualism includes the conception of an autonomous individual and emphasis on equality. Personality is one of the important domains of psychology and it deals with organized traits which are emotional, cognitive, and social. Various approaches have been proposed to examine personality but the Big-Five Personality Theory which suggests personality traits can be assessed under the five-factor has begun to come to the fore. These factors are extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience. Self-esteem indicates whether people have a low or high sense of their overall self-worth. Both personality traits and self-esteem effect on individualism-collectivism. In light of the literature the aim of this study is to examine whether extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem‘s predict vertical and horizontal individualism/collectivism self at university students and teachers. The research group consisted of 353 (71.9% female, 28.1% male) university students. To collect personal data form was used to obtain data on demographical features of the participants such as age and gender. Quick Big Five Personality Test, Self-esteem Scale • Yrd. Doç. Dr., Aksaray Üniversitesi, E?itim Fakültesi, RPD Anabilim Dal?. ** Türkolog. Uluslararas? Sosyal Ara?t?rmalar Dergisi Cilt: 10 Say?: 51 A?ustos 2017 The Journal of International Social Research Volume: 10 Issue: 51 August 2017 - 592 - and Vertical and Horizontal Individualism/Collectivism Scale were used. To analyze the data Pearson Correlation and a regression model in order to investigate extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and selfesteem‘s predict vertical and horizontal individualism/collectivism self. The preliminary analyses showed that extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem‘s predict vertical and horizontal individualism/collectivism self. First regression analyzed showed that extraversion agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self esteem significantly predict vertical individualism. Extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem explained of 22 % variance totally in vertical individualism. To be studied carefully values of β openness to experience and self-esteem significantly predicted vertical individualism. Second regression analyzed showed that extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem significantly predict horizontal individualism. Extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem explained of 12 % variance totally in horizontal individualism to be studied carefully values of β extraversion, openness to experience, emotional stability significantly predict horizontal individualism. Emotional stability explained of 25 % variance totally in horizontal individualism but it is direction negative that means when emotional stability decrease horizontal individualism is increased. Third regression analyzed showed that extraversion agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem significantly predict vertical collectivism. Extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem explained of 16 % variance totally in vertical collectivism. To be studied carefully values of β only agreeablenesses significantly predict horizontal individualism. Agreeableness explained of 39 % variance totally in horizontal individualism. Fourth regression analyzed showed that extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem significantly predict vertical collectivism. Extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem explained of 16 % variance totally in vertical collectivism. To be studied carefully values of β agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability significantly predict vertical individualism. Emotional stability explained of 17 % variance totally in vertical collectivism but it is direction negative it means when emotional stability decrease vertical collectivism is increased. Overall the results of this study indicated that personality traits which is consist of extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness and openness to experience and self-esteem predict vertical individualism, horizontal individualism, vertical collectivism and horizontal collectivism self. In this study self-esteem only predict vertical individualism others not. This finding indicated that self-esteem related equality perception of other people. In this study openness to experience predicts vertical individualism and horizontal individualism. This finding indicated that personality trait of openness to experience play important role of individualism. The result shows that agreeableness predict vertical collectivism and horizontal collectivism. It indicated that personality trait of agreeableness related collectivism in Turkish culture.

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