Author(s): Evans Lyndon BAINES-JOHNSON, ?lhan B?L?C?

This paper is a discussion of the different ways in which participation is incorporated into development projects and the various levels of participation and their merits and demerits. The paper further discusses the bottom-up versus the top-down approaches to development while critically assessing the concept of participation as a necessary approach to development. The intention here is to analyse whether the notion of participation is working or just a political act for the sake of satisfying the quests for community empowerment through participation. This piece will conclude with the narrative that even though participation is a desirable approach, it has not fully meant total involvement of local actors in development practice as the theory presupposes.


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