ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS TOOL AND GRASSROOTS MOVEMENT AGAINST HES CONSTRUCTIONS IN BLACK SEA REGION

Abstract

Author(s): a?r? ERYILMAZ

This study aims to analyze Small Scale Hydropower Plant (HES) opposition movement in Turkey. Hence, Environmental Analysis Tool is developed and implemented in Black Sea Region. In terms of ecological crisis, Murray Bookchin’s social ecology develops a strong criticism against liberal environmentalism, deep ecology, Marxism and provides an alternative radical social change beyond social movements approach. Environmental Analysis Tool is an ideal type, including six different approach to environmentalism traditional-conservative, market-liberal, welfare-liberal, democratic-socialist, revolutionary-socialist and social ecology, that analyses all environmental actions. The tool is implemented by qualitative field study with 27 participants of three types of organization at three unique areas in Blacksea Region (Düzce-Sakarya, Artvin-Rize-Trabzon, Artvin). Findings shows that HES opposition has the desire of strict state controls and planning as significant aspects of welfare-liberal environmentalism. On the other hand, the common critique of central, urban, professional and fund dependent environmentalism of national ENGOs fits market-liberal environmentalism critique of social ecology. The increasing demand to join decision-making mechanism, the bottom-to-top regional organization of local units and “living space” discourse show the aspects of social ecology. In fact, HES threat ignites participation demands of local people to decision-making mechanisms in Turkey

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